Endometrial cancer includes cancerous growths in lining of uterus (uterine lining).Causes of endometrial cancer
Endometrial cancer is most common type of uterine cancer. While exact cause of endometrial cancer is unknown, elevated estrogen levels appear to play a role. One of normal functions of estrogen is to stimulate formation of epithelial lining of the uterus. Excessive administration of estrogens to laboratory animals can lead to endometrial hyperplasia and cancer.
The incidence of endometrial cancer in women is between 1% and 2%. The peak incidence occurs between ages of 60 and 70 years, but 2% to 5% of cases can occur before age of 40 years. Women with elevated natural estrogen levels have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer.Associated risk factors include:
The results of a gynecological examination are usually normal, especially in early stages of disease. Changes in size, shape, or consistency of uterus and/or its surrounding supporting structures, which may occur as disease progresses.
A Pap smear may be normal or show abnormal cell changes. Endometrial aspiration or biopsy is helpful in diagnosis. Tumor diagnosis and evaluation usually require extended curettage (D and C).Complications
Anemia can be caused by chronic blood loss. (This can happen if a woman ignores symptoms of prolonged or frequent irregular menstrual bleeding.) Uterine perforation (hole) can occur with D and C or endometrial biopsy.Endometrial cancer staging
Women with early stage 1 disease may choose a surgical hysterectomy, but removal of fallopian tubes and ovaries (bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) is also commonly done for two reasons. Tumor cells may spread to ovaries early in disease, and any latent cancer cells may be stimulated by ovaries to secrete estrogen.
Abdominal hysterectomy is preferred over vaginal hysterectomy because it allows peritoneum to be examined and washed for any additional signs of cancer.
Women with stage 1 disease and women with stage 2 disease are often given surgery in combination with radiation therapy, both of which have an increased risk of recurrence. Chemotherapy may be considered in some cases, especially for patients with stage 3 and 4 disease.Forecast
Because endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed at an early stage (70 to 75% of cases are in stage 1 at diagnosis, 10 to 15% in stage 2, 10 to 15% in stage 3 or stage 4). ), so endometrial cancer may have a better prognosis than other gynecological cancers such as cervical or ovarian cancer.Survival rate
The five-year survival rate for endometrial cancer after proper treatment is:
Therefore, reasonable prevention, timely detection of lesions and early treatment of lesions are most important!