What are "pulmonary nodules"? Is it a benign lung tumor? Or lung cancer?

If something “suspicious” is found in lungs during a visit to hospital, this can be a source of great concern. The first thing that probably comes to mind is scary word: lung cancer. However, in many cases nodules in lungs are benign.

What are benign lung nodules and benign lung tumors?

Nodules are "spots" in lungs that can be seen on x-rays or computed tomography (CT). In fact, one nodule is found in every 500 chest x-rays. An overgrowth of normal lung tissue surrounding this small round or oval hard body. May be a solitary or solitary pulmonary nodule. Or you may have multiple knots.

The following factors may contribute to formation of benign nodules in lungs:

  • Not yet 40 years old.
  • You don't smoke.
  • There is indeed calcium in nodule.
  • The nodules are small.
  • A benign lung tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue that serves no purpose and is not cancerous. Benign lung tumors can grow from many different lung structures.

    It is very important to determine whether nodule is a benign tumor or cancer at an early stage. This is because early detection and treatment of lung cancer can greatly improve your chances of survival.

    What are symptoms of benign nodules and lung tumors?

    Benign nodules and lung tumors are usually asymptomatic. This is why they are almost always discovered incidentally on a chest x-ray or CT scan. However, they can cause symptoms such as:

  • Wheezing
  • Persistent cough or coughing up blood.
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fever, especially if pneumonia is present
  • What are causes of benign lung nodules and tumors?

    The cause of benign tumors and nodules in lungs is unknown. But in general, these issues tend to be caused by issues like:

    1. Inflammation due to infection, for example:

  • Infectious fungus (such as histoplasmosis, coccidiosis, cryptococcosis, or aspergillosis)
  • Tuberculosis (tuberculosis)
  • Lung abscess
  • Spherical pneumonia (rare in adults)
  • 2. Inflammation caused by non-infectious causes such as:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Wegener's granulomatosis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • 3. Birth defects such as lung cysts or other lung malformations.

    Here are some common types of benign lung tumors:

  • Hamartoma is most common benign lung tumor and third most common cause of solitary pulmonary nodules. These hard, marble-shaped tumors are made up of tissue that lines lungs, as well as tissue such as fat and cartilage. They are usually located at edges of lungs.
  • Bronchial adenomas: about half of all benign lung tumors. They are a separate group of tumors arising from mucous glands and ducts of trachea or large airways. Mucinous adenoma is an example of a truly benign bronchial adenoma.
  • Rare tumors: may include chondromas, fibromas, or lipomas, which are benign tumors composed of connective or fatty tissue.
  • How are benign lung nodules and tumors diagnosed?

    How do doctors know if a pulmonary nodule is benign? In addition to documenting historical physical examination, if nodule is smaller than 6 millimeters and risk is low, doctors may "watch" nodule for two years or more by taking multiple x-rays. If nodule remains same size for at least two years, it is considered benign. This is because benign nodules in lungs grow slowly, if at all. On the other hand, cancerous nodules double in size on average every four months. Doctors may keep checking your lung nodule every year for five years to make sure it's benign.

    Compared to cancerous nodules, benign nodules have smoother edges, a more uniform color, and a more regular shape. In most cases, your doctor can check growth rate, shape, and other features such as a chest x-ray, CT scan, or other characteristic calcifications. PET scan.

    Your doctor may also recommend other tests, especially if nodules have changed in size, shape, or appearance. This may be done to rule out cancer or to determine underlying cause of a benign nodule. They can also help identify any complications. You can run one or more of these tests:

  • Blood test
  • Tubercin skin test for tuberculosis
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Single Photon Emission CT (SPECT)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (rare)
  • Biopsy, removal of tissue, and examination under a microscope to determine if tumor is benign or malignant.
  • A biopsy can be performed using various methods such as aspirating cells with a needle or taking a sample of them using following methods. Bronchoscopy. This procedure allows doctor to view your airways with a thin viewing device.

    Treatment of benign lung nodules and tumors

    In many cases, doctors can simply observe a suspicious nodule in lungs with several chest x-rays over several years. However, in this case, doctor may recommend a biopsy or removal of entire node:

  • Smoking and presence of large nodules.
  • You have certain symptoms.
  • The scan shows that nodule may be malignant.
  • The knot begins to grow.
  • The operation is usually performed with small incisions and a short hospital stay. If you have a benign nodule, you will not need further treatment unless you resolve any underlying problems or complications associated with nodule, such as pneumonia or blockage.

    If you need invasive surgery to remove a tumor, your doctor may recommend one or more tests beforehand to make sure you are healthy. These may include blood tests or kidney, liver, or lung function tests.

    If necessary, surgery may require one of several procedures. The operation depends on location and type of tumor. Surgeons may remove a small tumor, one or more lobes, one or more lobes, or entire lung. However, surgeon will remove as little tissue as possible.

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