Bone density is highest when a person is in their early 20s, but as they age, they can lose bone mass (decrease in bone content per unit volume) due to various factors. An early warning sign of osteoporosis is a decrease in bone mass, which means an imbalance in processes of new bone formation and bone dissolution, i.e. dissolution of bone is greater than formation of new bone. The bones become porous, brittle, prone to fractures, radiographic density of bone (compared to normal bone tissue) is reduced, and bone trabeculae are rarefied. Osteoporosis affects elderly, so what causes osteoporosis? What are common reasons?
Most people believe that calcium deficiency is cause of osteoporosis, but a calcium-deficient diet is not only cause. Experts now agree that causes of bone loss are often multifactorial.
One of reasons: low levels of female estrogen and male testosterone
What is most common cause of osteoporosis? Generally speaking, women lack estrogen and men lack testosterone. Menopausal women and older men are prone to osteoporosis due to lack of estrogen and testosterone.
In addition, bilateral oophorectomy can lead to osteoporosis and decreased bone density for same reason. In one study, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with a 54% increased risk of hip, spine, and wrist fractures.
Reason 2: Another hormonal imbalance
Some hormones also play an important role in regulating bone density, including parathyroid hormone and growth hormone, which help bones better absorb calcium.
But an excess of parathyroid hormone, known as hyperparathyroidism, "damages" bones, causing calcium to be lost in urine. Decreased calcium means weaker bones, and as we age, growth hormone produced by body also declines. , which will also have some effect on the bones.
Third reason: calcium deficiency
Without calcium, it is naturally impossible to rebuild new bone during bone remodeling.
Bone is a storehouse of two minerals, calcium and phosphorus. Many organs of human body need a certain level of calcium in blood, especially myocardium and nerves are very dependent on calcium. When these organs need calcium, they steal it from mineral deposits in bones. Bones naturally become weaker over time as you deplete minerals in your bones.
Fourth Reason: Vitamin D Deficiency
Too little vitamin D can lead to weakened bones and increased bone loss. More of a hormone than a vitamin, vitamin D has many benefits, not least of which is that vitamin D helps the body absorb and use calcium.
Reason 5: Sedentary lifestyle
Bones weaken when they don't work. Remember the first astronauts? They suffered from rapid bone loss due to weightlessness in space. Dystrophic bone loss occurs rapidly in those who lead a sedentary lifestyle or suffer from conditions such as paralysis leading to osteoporosis.
Six reasons: smoking, drinking too much
Smokers have lower bone density and a higher risk of bone fractures than non-smokers. The findings show that smoking also has many other serious negative effects on bone health, from direct toxic effects of nicotine on bone cells to blocking body's ability to use estrogen, calcium, and vitamin D. Smoking is a high risk factor.
Similarly, alcohol can interfere with bone remodeling and increase calcium loss. Drinking increases risk of falls, and osteoporosis increases risk of fractures.
Reason Seven: Addiction Treatment
Some medications, most commonly corticosteroids, also known as corticosteroids, can increase risk of fractures by causing bone loss. Cortisone, hydrocortisone, corticosteroids, and prednisolone are among many drugs used to treat asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, colitis, and a wide range of other conditions. Antiepileptic drugs are also associated with bone loss.
Reason 8: Comorbidities
Many diseases have some effect on bone tissue, such as diseases of bone itself, including benign bone tumors, malignant bone tumors such as bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, giant cell tumors of bone, osteosarcoma, and myeloma. And so on, there are also infectious diseases, osteomyelitis, fibrocystic osteitis, etc., which in itself is a disease of bone tissue, and bone tissue at site of lesion is extremely fragile by nature and breaks easily.