Children are prone to skin diseases, parents and friends should be careful!
Today, Dr. Tian shared with you a popular science titled "the most complete knowledge on prevention and treatment of common childhood skin diseases in summer."
Baba Ma Ma, hurry up and learn itBeehives
➤ Often, skin itching occurs first, then a blister appears, which lasts from several minutes to several hours (no more than 24 hours), and then passes on its own without leaving marks. Skin lesion manifests itself repeatedly, from time to time it appears and disappears.
➤ Gastrointestinal tract: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, etc.
➤ Respiratory tract problems: throat congestion, chest tightness, shortness of breath, shortness of breath and even suffocation.
The diagnosis of this disease is simple, but determining cause is more difficult. Etiology can be divided into exogenous and endogenous.
➤ Exogenous factors: mostly temporary, ordinary food, nutritional supplements, drugs, physical stimulation, implants and exercise, etc.;
➤ Endogenous factors: predominantly persistent, widespread infection, systemic disease, inhalation, mast cell hypersensitivity to IgE, fatigue, mental stress, mood swings and endocrine changes.
Principles of treatment: identifying and eliminating potential causes and (or) provoking factors, alleviating symptoms.
➤ Acute urticaria
It is preferable to use second-generation antihistamines such as loratadine, cetirizine and desloratadine.
Patients with severe urticaria or laryngeal edema should promptly go to hospital for treatment.
➤ Chronic urticaria
It is preferable to use second-generation antihistamines such as loratadine, cetirizine and desloratadine.
Patients with severe urticaria or laryngeal edema should promptly go to hospital for treatment.papular urticaria
➤ Some children may develop red petechiae, papules, blisters, or ecchymosis ranging from mung beans to peanuts at site of bite, as well as itching that resolves in 7 to 10 days, leaving temporary pigmentation.
➤ In some children, a hemispherical raised, tense blister may form at site of an insect bite, sometimes blister may be size of a bean, with clear contents and no redness around it. There are only 1-2 of them, or even dozens.
This is mainly caused by bites of mosquitoes, bedbugs, fleas, lice, ticks, etc. By sucking out body fluids, insects also release some toxins that cause rashes and itching.
The disease is mainly observed in children with an atopic constitution.
It reduces scratching, which usually disappears on its own in 7-10 days.
➤ In mild cases, no treatment is needed or a calamine lotion can be used topically, or an ointment containing peppermint or camphor can be used topically to relieve itching.
➤ Oral antihistamines such as chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, loratadine, and cetirizine can be used for severe itching.
➤ If rash is severe or numerous, a topical corticosteroid cream (eg, mometasone furoate, hydrocortisone, etc.) may be used.
➤ For local infection, a topical antibiotic ointment (eg, mupirocin, compound polymyxin B, fusidic acid, etc.) is required.Ruby rubella
Prone populations: obese people and infants
Festival season: mainly in summer with high temperature and humidity
Prone areas: friction prone, wet folds such as neck, armpits, under breasts, around navel, in groin, joint flexors, around anus, between fingers and toes, etc. ..in
Typical lesions: in beginning it is mainly localized erythema or dark erythema with clear boundaries, and gradually worsen papules, papules, papules, macerations, erosions, exudation and even shallow ulcers p >
Symptoms:itching, burning, or painHerpes
The change of winter-spring, spring-summer is most common and can occur repeatedly, often over several years, with or without awareness of itching.
Skin lesions: Scattered or clustered small blisters deep in epidermis, occurring on lateral edges of fingers, palms or soles, and may also affect back of hands and plantar surfaces. The blisters usually do not burst on their own, may dissolve and disappear within 2-3 weeks, and flake off after drying.
Herpes is a relapsing non-infectious blistering disease.
The cause of this disease is not completely clear, it is currently believed that it may be an endogenous skin eczema-like reaction, that is, it may be associated with both allergic constitution of child and mental factors (such as mental stress and excitement ) may be cause of disease an important factor.
Early blistersApply 1% calamine lotion to external rub;
Children with obvious itching may use topical corticosteroids such as cortisone chloride butyrate cream;
Children with severe itching can be properly treated with conventional antiallergic drugs available on market.Impetigo
1. Non-bullous impetigo
It can occur in any part of body, but it is most common in exposed parts such as perioral region, external nostrils, auricles, and extremities.
Skin lesions begin as red spots or small papules that quickly turn into pustules with a clear blush around them, and pustules have thin walls that easily ulcerate and break down, and after formation of thick honey-yellow scabs, scabs form. pus dries up. Conscious itching. Old scabs usually fall off after 6-10 days, leaving no scars.
2. Bullous impetigo
Skin lesions usually occur on trunk and extremities. Initially, they are scattered blisters that quickly increase to superficial blisters over 2 cm in diameter within 1–2 days. The bubble fluid becomes light yellow. and transparent; after about 1 day, fluid of blisters becomes cloudy, walls of blisters are loose, and due to action of gravity, pus is deposited, forming characteristic phenomenon of lunate empyema.
3. Deep impetigo
It is more likely to occur in lower leg or buttocks, but can also occur in other parts of body.
Skin lesions: pustules first appear, which gradually penetrate deep into skin. Typical skin lesions are black thick scabs in shape of oyster shells with obvious redness and swelling around. After scabs are removed, disc-shaped ulcers with steep edges form. edges can be seen. The patient felt that pain is obvious.
4. Neonatal impetigo
This is a bullous impetigo that occurs in newborns.
Because skin of young children is delicate and does not resist bacteria well, and summer climate is hot and humid, skin is sweaty, bacteria multiply easily, and skin is easily injured after getting wet with sweat. leading to bacterial invasion prone to this disease.
➤ Skin lesions should be cleaned before topical application, preferably by bathing or showering in rain;
➤ When skin lesions ooze less, use 75% alcohol for direct disinfection;
➤ For extensive skin lesions and profuse exudate, use a 0.1% solution of ethacridic acid and lactic acid, a solution of berberine 1:2000 or a solution of potassium permanganate 1:5000 for cold and wet compresses;
➤ Antibiotic ointments such as mupirocin capsules, fusidic acid cream, or topical polymyxin B compound ointment.Quiet
Sweating. Small, clear, thin-walled blisters that burst easily when rubbed lightly, leaving small scales when dry, commonly found on face and trunk of infants. Usually asymptomatic.
Miliaria erythematosus is most common type of miliaria, presenting as clusters of non-follicular macules or pinhead-sized papules with visible blisters on top and mild hyperemia around them. Occurs in upper torso and neck, often with conscious burning, tingling, and itching.
Sweating rash. It is usually a secondary bacterial infection of miliaria erythematosus, in which yellow heads of pus appear on red papules.
Calamine lotion or powder can be used topically. Do not use ointments, pastes, oil preparations. In presence of a secondary bacterial infection, anti-infective treatment should be carried out.Eczema
Eczema is a common condition in infants and young children. This is a skin inflammatory reaction with particularly severe itching that recurs easily.
1. Acute eczema
It occurs most often on head and face, behind ears, distal extremities, scrotum, perianal region, etc., and distribution is usually symmetrical.
Skin lesions are mostly firm papules, papules, or vesicles about miliary in size at onset, base is hyperemic and gradually coalesces into layers, and when scratched, tops of papules, papules, or blistering are combed and show clear punctate exudation AND a small surface of erosion, margin not clear. Such as secondary infection, inflammation is more obvious, and pustules, pustules, folliculitis, boils, etc. may form. Conscious intense itching.
2. Subacute eczema
After acute eczema inflammation subsided, skin lesions were mostly small papules, incrustations and scales, with few papules and erosions. The intense itching is still present.
3. Chronic eczema
Often turns into chronic eczema due to repeated attacks of acute and subacute eczema, in beginning it can be chronic eczema. The skin in affected area is thickened, infiltrated, brownish-red or pigmented, with a rough surface, covered with scales or crusts from scratching. Conscious intense itching. It is common in calves, arms, legs, antecubital fossa, popliteal fossa, vulva, anus, etc. The course of disease is uncertain, easily relapsing, and persists for a long time.
The etiology of eczema is complex and is often result of an interaction between internal and external factors.
➤ Genetic predisposition of genes affected by genetic factors;
➤ The damaged barrier function of skin cannot resist external stimuli well;
➤ Environmental factors such as habitat, climate change, food, etc. can influence occurrence of eczema. External irritants such as sunlight, cold, dryness, heat, washing with hot water, air pollution, smoking, animal hair, plants, cosmetics, soaps and artificial fibers can be caused.
➤ If there are only a few small papules and peeling, an external ointment can be used to treat eczema. If skin lesions are reddened and itchy, cold compresses can be applied, such as 3% boric water after cooling, for 20 minutes each time, 2 days a day ~ 3 times, with severe eczema, it is recommended to consult a specialist.
➤ Eczema eczema occurs on epidermis of skin, so it usually does not leave scars after eschar falls off. As for treatment of eschar, it is recommended to use disinfected vegetable oil, olive oil and baby moisturizer after eschar is dry. Apply skin oil to eschar three times a day. After scab has softened, gently roll it up with a sterile cotton swab and apply a topical eczema ointment.atopic dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis is divided into three stages
①Infancy: Onset begins in second or third month after birth. The main manifestation is childhood eczema, which mainly spreads to cheeks, forehead and scalp. The rash is divided into exudative type and dry type, all accompanied by severe itching.
②Childhood: In most cases, disease manifests itself before age of five. This mainly occurs on side of flexion of limbs and on side of extension of lower leg. The antecubital and popliteal fossae are most often affected, and skin lesions are often dry and hypertrophied with severe lichenification. Itching all over body forms a vicious circle of itching and scratching.
③Adolescence and adulthood: skin lesions are similar to those in childhood. It tends to occur around eyes (periorbital black halo), around neck, antecubital and popliteal fossae, extremities and trunk, especially on palms and soles in some patients. Itching is intense, and secondary skin lesions such as blood scabs, scales, and pigmentation appear when scratched.
The etiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown and includes genetic predisposition, food allergen irritation, inhaled allergen irritation, autoantigens, infection, and skin dysfunction.
For external use:
➤ Glucocorticoid ointment such as desonide cream, hydrocortisone butyrate cream, mometasone saccharate cream, etc.
➤ Non-hormonal creams such as bemecrolimus or tacrolimus
➤ Antihistamines such as cetirizine drops, chlorpheniramine, etc.
➤ Glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants
Daily family care and prevention
➤Clothing: pure cotton, loose, soft
➤Food. Try to avoid foods containing allergens
➤To live: keep room clean and ventilated, wash plush toys often
➤Washing: water temperature should not be too hot, mild shower gel, body lotion after bath
Handorooplantar disease is a type of erosive infectious disease, mainly caused by Coxsackievirus, that can occur all year round, but most often in summer and autumn, and can occur at any age, especially at a younger age. 3 year old child.
➤ In most children, onset of disease is sudden, initially manifested by a high fever, accompanied by symptoms such as headache, runny nose and cough, while body temperature persists;
➤ Its idiopathic localization often occurs on arms, legs, mouth and buttocks with round or oval maculopapules and herpes. Herpes rice grains size of mung beans, round or flat, surrounded by a blush, cloudy liquid inside, and its blisters are pressed inward, subcutaneous layer is rel.Very loose, rash is characterized by painless itching, no scabs, no residual scar. Ulcers and herpes appear on mucous membrane of oral cavity, and time of appearance and time of rash appear within 24 hours. Most children have such manifestations of stomatitis as salivation and refusal of food.
➤ The disease is more common from March to November of each year, and peak period is from June to September;
➤ High incidence of preschool children, especially infants and children under 4 years old;
➤ Most children and adults are not infected, but can spread virus;
➤ Way of transmission: airborne, contact with herpetic fluid of patient, contamination with feces of hands and contact with toys, utensils, utensils and other objects, causing indirect transmission from children, as well as causing crossover through contaminated water sources, outpatient clinics institutions. and mouth instruments Infect.
➤ First, go to hospital for diagnosis and treatment, take your medication as prescribed by your doctor, and rest in bed.
➤ Pay attention to cleanliness of skin in oral cavity, clean oral cavity with saline every day, and at same time take care of patients not to scratch skin herpes to prevent ulceration and infection.